Dispute Over Mosul

النزاع حول الموصل

Outline Of Events

July 24th 1923: treaty of Lausanne signed - The treaty of Lausanne involved the Brittish Empire, Japan, Italy, France, Roumania, Greece, and the Serb-Croat-Slovene State and Turkey. The treaty provided that the frontier between Turkey and Iraq should be laid down in a civil arrangement between Turkey and Great Britain within nine months. If no agreement could be reached within that time period the dispute would be referred to the Council of the League of Nation.

August 6th 1924: The Brittish and Turkish Governments agreed to submit the question of control over the Mosul region to the League of Nations for a resolution.

October29th 1924:This dispute ultimately was referred to the Council. The Council established the Brussels Line as a provisional boundary. The Brussels Line followed almost exactly the northern border of Mosul.
June 5th 1926: The Treaty of Angora was signed. This treaty was between the United Kingdom, Iraq, and Turkey. This treaty established that the boundary between Turkey and Iraq would follow the Brussels Line.

Central Issue Of The ConflictThe central issue of the Mosul dispute is an argument between Mosul and Turkey. This particular dispute was concerning the northern boundary of Mosul and where it will lie. http://www.law.fsu.edu/library/collection/limitsinseas/ibs027.pdfb (robisap)The Role Payed By The League Of Nations After the creation of the League of Nations, many conflicts were resolved. Among these was the dispute of the former Ottoman territory of Mosul. The United Kingdom claimed that Mosul belonged to Iraq, while the Turkish state, which was newly formed, claimed it to be a cornerstone of its "historic heartland". The UK was awarded an A-Mandate, which meant that it was given control of the Iraq region. Therefore representing its issues to the League of Nation's committee. The resolution that the "three person" commitee was that Mosul belonged to Iraq. A condition was annexed along with the committee's decision. This was that the United Kingdom shall be given a stretch in its ruling period of the region to 25 years. This resolution took effect on December 16, 1925. Turkey rejected the proposition ,but by June 1926 a treaty was made between this country and Iraq, which stated that Iraq could keep Mosul.(ABetaAn)
Longrigg, Stephen Hemsley. Iraq, 1900 - 1950: A Political,Social and Economic History. London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1958.
Shikara, Ahmad. Iraq Politics, 1921 - 41: The Interaction betweenDomestic Politics and Foreign Policy. London: LAAM, 1987.
Analysis Of EffectivenessThe League of Nations' actions were effective to a certain extent. At first when the League of Nations attempted to set the boundary it was uneffective. The countries involved just put the treaty aside. But once the actual conflict arised the League of Nations stepped forward. They created the treaty of Angora. This reestablished the border between Turkey and Iraq. With this treaty of Angora the dispute was put to rest. Therefore, the League of nations resolved the dispute in an effective way.(robisap)Visual Primary Source
Mosul Comision of the League of Nations.Sitting (sencond from left) A.Paulis, Af Wirsén & de Teleki
They were commisioned by the League of Nations, whose primary purpose was to study the Mosul Area, and judge whether this territory would belong to the British Protectorate of Iraq or to the New Turkish State.As part of their extensive research, they set out on a quest to study the region and gather information from the people living in the Area. Among these different people who lived in Mosul where the Assyrians, Kurds, Jews, Yezidis, Arabs and Turks. Their final ruling would be that Mosul belonged to Iraq, resolution to which Turkey would not appeal.The origin of this picture is from a Belgian website, from an article written about famous Belgians. The purpose is to show the committee that the League of Nations sent to the Mosul Region. The value is that one can get to know the persons behind the resolution that would later be adopted. A limitation is that it doesn't have a further research of the three persons who composed the group, therefore not giving enough information about the backgrounds or a small biography of any of the committee members. (ABetaAn)http://www.shlama.be/shlama/content/view/298/249/

Textual Primary source

This primary source is a magazine article written on October 27, 1924 , a little under a year of when the Treaty of Lausanne was created. This article tells about the Treaty of Lausanne and how they still did not see change from this. Neither the British or the Turkish people have the same idea as to where the boundary lays between Turkey and Iraq. Both Turkey and Iraq go by their own interpretation as to where the boundary should be thus disregarding the other country's boundary. (Turkey wanted to have control over Mosul because of the oil that was in Mosul.) Thus leaving the fact that the treaty was uneffective because there were two different ideas as to where the boundary is. It later talks about how they will be turning to the League of Nations for a resolution of this on going dispute. This article acknowledges the fact that the Treaty of Lausanne was not helpful. Although the Treaty of Angora will not happen for another two years, it foreshadows that there will be a resolution of the border dispute with the help of the League of Nations. This article's origin is in the U.S. It is valuable because it is from the eyes of an outsider, because the U.S. was not a participate of the League of Nations. One limitation is that because it is from the stand point of an outsider, you do not get to know the other side of the story so you don't fully know if the people involved think about the issue. The purpose of this article was to inform the people that the League had not helped fix the border dispute quite yet, proving that they made the right choice by not participating in the League of Nations. (robbisap)