Colombia- Peru War

Outline of events

  • The conflict between Colombia and Peru centered on control over the Colombian harbor town of Leticia on the Amazon. In 1829 the first bilateral treaty pertaining to the disputed land drew the boundary according the old colonial demarcation, based on the principle of possession at end of war. The treaty, however, failed to specify with geographic precision the location of the colonial boundary.

  • A second agreement, proposed in 1930, was considered favorable to Colombian interests but was never acknowledged by Peru. Four subsequent treaties between Colombia and Peru--signed in 1906, 1909, 1911, and 1922--also dealt with boundary claims and charges of Peruvian penetration into southern Colombia's Putumayo region. The 1922 treaty recognized the legitimacy of Colombia's boundary on the Amazon River and provided for free navigation of the river by both countries. Because of continuing objections to the treaty's terms, however, Peru did not ratify the treaty until 1928. Upon Peru's ratification of the pact, it was widely believed that the Putumayo dispute had at last been resolved.

  • Two years later, Colombia took possession of its territory in the region. On September 1, 1932, over 300 armed Peruvian civilians seized the town of Leticia in a demonstration against the 1922 treaty.

  • In response, the Colombian government announced plans to send a force of 1,500 soldiers to repel the invaders. Upon learning of Colombia's intent, the Peruvian government--which had earlier criticized the invaders' action--moved to support its nationals. The first skirmishes took place in early 1933, as the Colombian river fleet made its way up the Amazon to the site of the invasion.

  • After months of diplomatic wrangling over the selection of a mutually acceptable forum for the peaceful resolution of the dispute, Colombia and Peru accepted mediation by the League of Nations. A provisional peace agreement, signed in May 1933, provided for the league to assume control of the disputed territory while bilateral negotiations proceeded.

  • In June 1934, following the signing in May of yet another bilateral treaty, Leticia was returned to Colombia. Under the terms of the May pact, Peruvian concessions included a formal apology for the 1932 invasion and a reaffirmation of Peru's acceptance of the 1922 agreement. The treaty also provided for demilitarization of the area around Leticia, free navigation on the Amazon and Río Putumayo, and a pledge of nonaggression.

  • As a gesture of mutual goodwill in continuing bilateral cooperation, the settlement also provided for future negotiations on trade and tariff issues, riverine transport, population settlements in the region, and the joint policing of the common border. In September 1935, the instruments of ratification were exchanged.

  • Following the dispute's resolution, national attention was again directed to the strengthening of Colombia's military forces. Despite the role played by the riverine fleet, the invasion of Leticia exposed the military's overall lack of preparedness. During the mid-1930s, the legislature approved higher budget allocations for the armed forces. Recruitment efforts intensified. By the end of the decade, however, military spending again had declined. Comparable levels of military expenditures as a percentage of the national budget were not again achieved until 1949, when defense allocations represented approximately 17 percent of central government expenditures.

"Colombia The Leticia Conflict - Flags, Maps, Economy, History, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, International Agreements, Population, Social Statistics, Political System."Photius Coutsoukis. Web. 17 Oct. 2010. <http://www.photius.com/countries/colombia/national_security/colombia_national_security_the_leticia_conflict.html>.

- Kyla Rhoads

Central Issue:

The Colombia-Peru War was fought over the boundaries of the Putumayo region of southern Colombia, a dispute which dated back to the colonial era. The region is a part of the Amazon river basin, and consequently an area of great desire. There were at least four treaties in the early twentieth century between the two countries in order to try to come to an agreement, but all were relatively unsuccessful. Both countries constantly had troops in the area to try and gain control. The breaking point of the dispute was in 1933 when Peruvian armed civilians seized control of the city of Leticia, Colombia. Forces were sent by both countries to the region and a small war commenced.

Role of League of Nations:

The League of Nations played a large role in the Colombia-Peru War. After a few months of fighting, both of military and diplomatic nature, the countries accepted mediation from the League of Nations. In a provisional peace agreement, the League of Nations gained control of the region until the negotiations commenced. In June of the next year, Colombia regained control of Leticia and the conflict was dissolved. Peru had to agree to several peace agreements and reaffirm the 1922 Salomon-Lazano Treaty. The League of Nations was very valuable in the Colombia-Peru War because it effectively ended the fighting and created a peace agreement both countries were forced to comply with. The boundary between these two countries had been an issue for more than a hundred years, but with the help of the League of Nations, the dispute was finally put to rest.

1. "Leticia Conflict." Photius Coutsoukis. 2004. Web. 16 Oct. 2010. <http://www.photius.com/countries/colombia/national_security/colombia_national_security_the_leticia_conflict.html> (CIA World Factbook)

-Maegan Burkhart

Textual Source

Colombia bombardea Perú (1932-1933)

El Ejército nacional atacó el puerto peruano de Güepi, en desarrollo de la guerra por la recuperación de Leticia. Colombia derrotó a Perú en su propio territorio. El puerto de Güepi, en el extremo peruano del río Putumayo, fue tomado por el Ejército colombiano el 26 de marzo. Esta victoria le permite al país controlar todo el cauce del río Putumayo, un logro vital para la recuperación de Leticia. La ciudad amazónica fue tomada por Perú el 1˚ de septiembre de 1932. En principio, se creía que los atacantes eran comunistas. Un diplomático peruano dijo en su momento que se trataba de "enemigos del Gobierno de Perú". Pero, lejos de ser disidentes, los 300 hombres armados con ametralladoras que perpetraron la toma de Leticia tenían el respaldo de Lima. Pasados unos días, el presidente peruano, Luis Miguel Sánchez Cerro, calificó el ataque como fruto de las "incontenibles aspiraciones" de civiles peruanos de "recuperar" un territorio que juzgaban suyo y que habían "perdido" tras la firma del Tratado Salomón-Lozano en 1922. Ese acuerdo le da a Colombia soberanía sobre el territorio al norte del río Amazonas. Para muchos peruanos, la firma de ese pacto bilateral -que fue mantenido en secreto en Perú por tres años- fue una traición. El ataque peruano sólo encontró la resistencia de diez policías, que fueron reducidos fácilmente. Llegar allá es muy difícil, son diez días en medio de la selva a través del río Putumayo. Pese a ello, los colombianos enfilaron sus pocas armas hacia Leticia y comenzaron la defensa. El Gobierno de Enrique Olaya Herrera convenció a partidarios y opositores de apoyar la nueva causa común, y montó una ofensiva destinada a sostener el costo económico y humano de la defensa del territorio. El Gobierno reunió más de 10 millones de pesos en bonos del "Fondo de Defensa Nacional" que compraban los particulares, mientras que los "bazares patrióticos" y las donaciones de todos los tamaños se extendían por el país. Con ese dinero, el Presidente armó las Fuerzas Militares, multiplicó por cuatro el gasto militar entre 1932 y 1933 -según la Cepal- y preparó en tiempo récord la respuesta al Perú. El 21 de diciembre de 1932, un contingente militar colombiano llegó a Belén de Pará, en Brasil. La estrategia colombiana es recuperar Leticia "por la fuerza del derecho o por el derecho de la fuerza", así que los esfuerzos diplomáticos fueron paralelos a la respuesta militar, comandada por el general Alfredo Vásquez Cobo. Tras el fracaso de los diálogos impulsados por Brasil, la declaración de guerra se produjo en cuestión de días: a la 1 de la mañana del 15 de febrero de 1933. La guerra durará poco. Luego de tres meses de enfrentamientos, Perú se replegará y cesarán las hostilidades. Las victorias colombianas en Tarapacá y Güepi y el asesinato de Sánchez Cerro en Lima, ocurrido el 30 de abril, pondrán a Colombia en una posición dominante. Con la izada de la bandera nacional en Leticia el 25 de mayo por parte de la Sociedad de Naciones, Perú volverá a perder Leticia. Esta vez para siempre. Favor de Scadta Scadta le prestó tres aviones a la Fuerza Aérea Colombiana para hacer la guerra contra el Perú y asesoró al Gobierno en la construcción de un aeropuerto militar en el Valle del Cauca. "La guerra es cruel y es amarga, pero la guerra en defensa de la soberanía nacional es bella": reseñó EL TIEMPO, martes 14 de febrero de 1933.

Translation

Colombia bombed Peru (1932-1933)

The National Army attacked the Peruvian port of Guepí, in development of the war for the recovery of Leticia.

Colombia defeated Peru in its own territory. Guepí port in the Peruvian end of the Putumayo River, was taken by the Colombian Army on 26 March. This victory allows the country to control the entire course of the Putumayo River, a vital achievement for the recovery of Leticia. The Amazonian city was taken by Peru on 1 September 1932 ˚. In principle, it was believed that the attackers were communists. A Peruvian diplomat said at the time that they were "enemies of the Government of Peru." But far from being dissidents, the 300 men armed with machine guns who perpetrated making Leticia had the backing of Lima. After a few days, the Peruvian president, Luis Miguel Sánchez Cerro, described the attack as a result of the "irrepressible aspirations" of Peruvian civilians "recover" a territory that judged him and they had "lost" after the signing of Solomon-Lozano in 1922. This agreement gives Colombia sovereignty over the territory north of the Amazon River.For many Peruvians, the signing of the bilateral pact, which was kept secret in Peru for three years, was a betrayal. The Peruvian attack resistance found only ten policemen were reduced easily. Is very difficult to get there are ten days in the jungle across the Putumayo River. However, few Colombians pointed their guns at Leticia and began the defense. The government of Enrique Olaya Herrera convinced supporters and opponents of supporting the new common cause, and mounted an offensive aimed at sustaining economic and human cost of defending the territory. The Government collected more than 10 million pesos in bonds of the "National Defense Fund" to buy individuals, while the "bazaars patriotic" and donations of all sizes spread across the country. With that money, the President assembled military forces, multiplied by four military spending between 1932 and 1933-according to ECLAC, and prepared in record time response to Peru. On December 21, 1932, a Colombian military contingent arrived in Belém do Pará, Brazil. Colombia's strategy is to recover Leticia "by force of law or the law of force" and that diplomatic efforts were parallel to the military response, led by General Alfredo Vasquez Cobo. After the failure of the talks driven by Brazil, the declaration of war took place within days, at 1 am on February 15, 1933. The war will be short.After three months of fighting, Peru will retract and cease hostilities. Victories Guepí Colombian and Tarapaca and murder of Sánchez Cerro in Lima, which occurred April 30, will put Colombia in a dominant position. With the hoisting of the national flag in Leticia on May 25 by the League of Nations, Peru will lose Leticia. This time forever. Please Scadta Scadta lent three aircraft to the Colombian Air Force to make war against Peru and advised the government on building a military airport in Valle del Cauca. "War is cruel and bitter, but the war in defense of national sovereignty is beautiful" outlined TIME, Tuesday, February 14, 1933.

"Colombia Bombardea Perú (1932-1933) - Archivo - Archivo Digital De Noticias De Colombia Y El Mundo Desde 1.990 - Eltiempo.com." Principales Noticias De Colombia Y El Mundo - ELTIEMPO.COM. Web. 17 Oct. 2010. <http://www.eltiempo.com/archivo/documento/CMS-7723692>.


Analysis
The origin of this article was from a Colombian newspaper that still runs today. The purpose was to tell about the conflict between Colombia and Peru. The point of view is from the Colombia government. The value is that it shows the perspective of the Colombian government but the limitation is that it is biased and in spanish.

Visual Source

Guerra peru1 1932 d.jpg
Guerra peru1 1932 d.jpg
Colombian Army making maneuvers to counter a Peruvian attack.

The wars with Peru
(1911-1934)
Peruvian Colombian conflict originated in the activities of the house Arana in the slingshot of Colombia, which Peruvians tried to annex in 1911, which gave rise to a first war with Peru and lost part of the country. In 1932, Peru returned to invade Colombia in Leticia, who united around the Colombian government. The war of 1932 lasted three months and the lawsuit was settled by the Protocol of Rio de Janeiro, which recognized the rights of Colombia in the area claimed by Peru.

"El Siglo XX Colombiano." Actividad Cultural Del Banco De La República - Colombia | Banrepcultural.org. Web. 16 Oct. 2010. <http://www.banrepcultural.org/blaavirtual/revistas/credencial/abril2004/contenido.htm>.


Analysis
The origin was from a photographer taking pictures during the Colombia Peru War. Its purpose is to . Its value is that it gives us a visual of what the war between the two looked like. Its limitations is that it only gives one instance in the war. The picture does not tell us the outcome of the war. Its main purpose is to give a visual of one instance in the war.

- Kyla Rhoads